# Shell 1 — Welcome to LS-DYNA Examples

A spherical shell is subjected to outward point loads on the x-axis and inward point loads on the z-axis.

## Introduction

```*CONTROL_SHELL
LS-DYNA Manual Section: *CONTROL_SHELL

Description:
A spherical shell is subjected to outward point loads on the x-axis and inward

Model:
The 1/8 symmetry model of a sphere measures 10 inches in radius with a
thickness of 0.04 inches. The model contains 48 shell elements. A force of one
pound is applied in the positive x-direction to the node on the x-axis.
A force of one pound is applied in the negative z-direction to the node on the
y-axis.

Input:
The element formulation is the Hughes-Liu shell with four integration points
through the thickness. Note: If B-T element formulation is used the solution
would be incorrect. To fix it, the Belytschko-Tsay shell requires the
Belytschko-Wang-Chiang warpage stiffness modification (*CONTROL_SHELL).
The concentrated loads are applied to two nodes (*DEFINE_CURVE,

Results:
The oscillation of the node on the z-axis shows a regular oscillatory behavior.
Since there is no specified damping, oscillations would be expected.

Reference:
Belytschko, T., Wang and Chiang.```

## Keywords

```*CONTROL_ENERGY
*CONTROL_HOURGLASS
*CONTROL_SHELL
*CONTROL_TERMINATION
*DATABASE_BINARY_D3PLOT
*DEFINE_CURVE
*ELEMENT_SHELL
*END
*KEYWORD
*MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC
*NODE
*PART
*SECTION_SHELL
*TITLE```

## Reduced Input

```  *KEYWORD
*TITLE
Hemispherical Shell
\$
\$  LSTC Example
\$
\$
\$  Units: lbf-s2/in, in, s, lbf, psi, lbf-in
\$
\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$
\$
\$\$\$\$  Control Output
\$
\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$
\$
\$...>....1....>....2....>....3....>....4....>....5....>....6....>....7....>....8
\$
*CONTROL_TERMINATION
\$   endtim    endcyc     dtmin    endneg    endmas
6.000E-02
\$
*CONTROL_ENERGY
\$     hgen      rwen    slnten     rylen
2         2
\$
*CONTROL_HOURGLASS
\$      ihq        qh
4
\$
*CONTROL_SHELL
\$   wrpang    itrist     irnxx    istupd    theory       bwc     miter
-2                   1
\$
\$
*DATABASE_BINARY_D3PLOT
\$       dt      lcdt
6.000E-04
\$
\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$
\$
\$
\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$
\$
\$\$\$\$  Load node  1 in the positive x-direction.
\$
\$      nid       dof      lcid        sf       cid        m1        m2        m3
1         3         1       1.0
\$
\$\$\$\$  Load node 46 in the negative z-direction.
\$
\$      nid       dof      lcid        sf       cid        m1        m2        m3
46         1         1      -1.0
\$
\$
*DEFINE_CURVE
\$     lcid      sidr      scla      sclo      offa      offo
1
\$           abscissa            ordinate
0.000E+00           1.000E+00
1.000E+00           1.000E+00
\$
\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$
\$
\$\$\$\$  Define Parts and Materials
\$
\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$
\$
\$...>....1....>....2....>....3....>....4....>....5....>....6....>....7....>....8
\$
*PART
\$      pid       sid       mid     eosid      hgid    adpopt
Hemisphere
1         1         1
\$
\$
*MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC
\$      mid        ro         e        pr      sigy      etan      beta
1 1.000E-03 6.825E+07       0.3 600000.00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00
\$      src       srp        fs
0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00
\$
\$
*SECTION_SHELL
\$      sid    elform      shrf       nip     propt   qr/irid     icomp
1                             5
\$       t1        t2        t3        t4      nloc
4.000E-02 4.000E-02 4.000E-02 4.000E-02
\$
\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$
\$
\$\$\$\$  Define Nodes and Elements
\$
\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$\$
\$
\$\$\$\$  Multiple nodes have boundary conditions to simulate symmetry.
\$
\$
*END```