# Metal forming — Welcome to LS-DYNA Examples

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This problem models the metal forming process known as upsetting. Only a quarter of the problem is modeled because of symmetry. The initial temperature is 20. There is no heat transfer to the environment. The temperature change of the body is from conversion of mechanical work into heat through plastic deformation. A thermal time step is used which is 1000 times larger than the mechanical time step, since heat transfer takes place on a longer time scale than the mechanical deformation.

## Keywords

```*BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_SET
*CONTROL_HOURGLASS
*CONTROL_SOLUTION
*CONTROL_TERMINATION
*CONTROL_THERMAL_SOLVER
*CONTROL_THERMAL_TIMESTEP
*CONTROL_TIMESTEP
*DATABASE_BINARY_D3PLOT
*DATABASE_TPRINT
*DEFINE_CURVE
*ELEMENT_SHELL
*END
*INITIAL_TEMPERATURE_SET
*KEYWORD
*MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY
*MAT_THERMAL_ISOTROPIC
*NODE
*PART
*SECTION_SHELL
*SET_NODE_LIST_GENERATE
*TITLE```

## Reduced Input

```  \$ Compression of a Cylinder with Conversion of Plastic Work to Heat
\$
*KEYWORD
\$
\$        1         2         3         4         5         6         7         8
\$
\$=============================CONTROL DEFINITIONS ==============================
\$
*TITLE
upset of a cylindrical part
*CONTROL_SOLUTION
2
*CONTROL_TIMESTEP
0.        0.         0        0.    1.e-04
*CONTROL_THERMAL_SOLVER
1         0         1                                      1.
*CONTROL_THERMAL_TIMESTEP
0       1.         .1
*CONTROL_TERMINATION
1.6
*CONTROL_HOURGLASS
4
*DATABASE_TPRINT
.1
*DATABASE_BINARY_D3PLOT
.1
\$
\$============================== PART DEFINITIONS ===============================
\$
*PART
cylinder
1         1         1                                                 1
\$
\$============================= SECTION PROPERTIES ==============================
\$
*SECTION_SHELL
1        15
0.001     0.001     0.001     0.001        0.
\$
\$====================== MECHANICAL MATERIAL PROPERTIES =========================
\$
*MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY
1     7830.  210.e+09       .28

0.000E+00 1.000E-02 2.000E-02 5.000E-02 1.000E-01 2.000E-01 4.000E-01 1.000E+00
2.500E+08 2.800E+08 3.000E+08 3.500E+08 4.200E+08 5.000E+08 5.200E+08 5.400E+08
\$
\$======================== THERMAL MATERIAL PROPERTIES ==========================
\$
*MAT_THERMAL_ISOTROPIC
1     7830.
460.       46.
\$============================= NODE DEFINTIONS =================================
\$
*NODE
\$
\$============================ ELEMENT DEFINITIONS ==============================
\$
*ELEMENT_SHELL
\$
\$================== DEFINE NODE SET FOR BOUNDARY CONDITIONS ====================
\$
*SET_NODE_LIST_GENERATE
1
25        28
*SET_NODE_LIST_GENERATE
2
1        28
\$
\$======================= TEMPERATURE INITIAL CONDITON ==========================
\$
*INITIAL_TEMPERATURE_SET
2       20.
\$
\$======================= MECHANICAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS ========================
\$
*BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_SET
1         2         2         1        1.
*DEFINE_CURVE
1
0.                  0.
2.              -.0099
*end```